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They mean the same thing, don’t they?

What’s the difference between concentrate and focus? When do we use courier, and not carrier? How about comment and remark, fine and penalty, etc.? I quite enjoy responding to these questions without hesitation. Last week, however, when my colleague asked me whether or not optimism means happiness, it took me a while to say that optimistic people are not necessarily happy individuals (i.e. optimism doesn’t equate to happiness, and vice versa).

I’m a “half full glass” person, so I often see a plus rather than a minus that even in a negative situation, e.g. missing my bus by 2 minutes, I think “Every cloud has a silver lining.” I’ve always been like this, which helps me deal with the present. On the other hand, when it comes to the future, I’m a rational optimist.

Though I take responsibility for my decisions and actions, I believe that I’m not the only person involved in a situation that goes wrong. Likewise, I accept the reality that this ‘thing gone wrong’ has inconveniences (but only temporary – optimistic again).

Are optimistic people (“me” included) happy?

Optimism is a style of thinking and not a genetic attribute or permanent attitude, so it can be changed and learnt (as well as taught). Since optimism has good effects on mental health, professional success and personal gain, we don’t want to replace it with negativism (pessimism); do we?

Negativism leads to helplessness and undesirable self-fulfilling prophecy (i.e. expectation/thought that affects one’s behaviour causing this expectation/thought to come true). It, too, can be changed and learnt (as well as taught). But, who wants to be negative (pessimistic) knowing that it derails you from meeting your needs and achieving your goals?

“Research shows that happy and unhappy people generally have the same number of adverse events in their lives. The difference is in their interpretation of unfortunate life events. Optimistic people are willing and able to make positive life action plans to counteract negative events in their lives, while pessimists are more likely to do nothing, then find themselves sinking into negativism, lethargy, perhaps even depression.” Betty W. Phillips, Ph.D., Psychology ( seen on 16/10/16).

Being optimistic is a state of mind that has a positive effect on many aspects of our lives — e.g. you’ll live healthily and efficiently. Optimistic people are hopeful for a better situation or result.

Happiness, on the other hand, is an emotion (like sadness, anger and disappointment) and is biological in nature; it reinforces optimism.

Optimism is a by-product of happiness rather than a cause of it. (Optimistic individuals don’t give up easily; they are resilient).

I’m a rational optimist and not always happy. When I’m sad due to difficulties caused by other people, I keep my optimism high by motivational and inspiring quotes, which I use in any given opportunity, e.g. writing these on note pads and flip charts (sharing them with my students).

Going to the gym at least twice a week makes me happy and relieves tensions. I find it relaxing to watch movies at home or in the cinema/theatre once a week.

My job gives me a lot of satisfaction and joy. Every day, there’s something that makes me smile and gratified. This can be from simple to unusual gestures, such as giving and receiving words of thanks and appreciation, eating something I really fancy or have never tried before, reading, writing or having a drink with someone I like.

There are tons of write-ups on how to be happy and optimistic, thus I won’t replicate these here. However, I’d like to point out two issues that are relevant to any discussion about happiness and optimism. First, we’ve to go an extra mile to sleep at least 7-8 hours every night because a lack of sleep makes us moody, impatient and less energetic and alert. Second, it’s not easy to leave a gloomy past behind, which creates unhappiness and interferes with our efforts to become a better person, so how about getting rid of those associated with our toxic past?

“An optimist sees an opportunity in every calamity; a pessimist sees a calamity in every opportunity” — Winston Churchill

Donating and volunteering: For love of self and others

“We make a living by what we get. We make a life by what we give.” ― Winston S. Churchill

In the first week of September, in Luxembourg, I had lunch with the funding member of ‘Dress for Success’ and my student who wants to join her in helping and empowering women. A few days later, I bumped into an acquaintance who has been teaching French to new arrivals in our region without financial remuneration. Two weeks ago, I attended a fundraising dinner and dance in a town about 10km from my city. It was a friendly atmosphere with men, women and children making sure that we would have a fantastic time, in addition to being busy collecting money for local charities and NGOs. Last week, through the encouragement of a friend, I went to the nearby park and was mesmerised by about a dozen tents with generous and smiling individuals selling and entertaining people for good causes.

As I write this article, I think of my friend who has always time for her environmental group doing information dissemination, pancake making and coordinating Christmas stalls; as well as my ex-student who founded ‘United by Dream Onlus,’ a humanitarian organisation aiding impoverished children and their families. Sometime in our lives, we are volunteers; however, some do more than others.

Why do we volunteer? Research and individual testimonies have revealed that volunteering has benefits for individuals and societies, and the main ones are: i) It gives the volunteer a sense of achievement and belongingness to a community; ii) Offers opportunity to meet diverse range of people and experiences; iii) It enhances social and relationship abilities; iv) Enables development and/or practice of new skills, hobbies and interests; v) Can boost your career; vi) It’s a rich resource for organisations to carry out their missions, thus helping less fortunate than we are or those in need.

When I was young, every time I thought about volunteering, going overseas flashed immediately into my mind. Well, there are plenty of occasions to do this locally, i.e. local service clubs, social centres, non-profit service associations, schools, etc. The first step is knowing what you want to do (taking into consideration your personality and interest) and match this with the organisation or cause.

According to the World Giving Index 2015, a research done by Gallup and Charities Aid Foundation, the five most generous nations in the world are: 1. Myanmar (92% of its inhabitants donated money in 2014. Although they gave a small amount, they did it daily as this is part of their Buddhist faith); 2. US (12th in the world for charitable donation but 76% of its population helped strangers); 3. New Zealand (4th in volunteering and its charitable money giving increased by 6%); 4. Canada (44% of its population offered time to volunteer); and Australia (Its charitable donation increased by 6% and time spent on volunteering by 3%). They are followed by The UK (6th), The Netherlands (7th), Sri Lanka (8th), Ireland (9th) and Malaysia (10th)( seen on 27/09/16).

Last year, Wealth-X and Business Insider produced the Generosity Index, a list of 20 most generous people in the world that included Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates (No. 1) donating US$27 billion in lifetime donations as of October 2015. The leading causes supported by the world’s biggest individual donors are education, health and medicine, social and humanitarian services, community development, and arts and culture ( seen 30/09/16).

Hong Kong business magnate Li Ka-shing, with US$1.4 billion in donations to date, has reportedly spent over US$770 million to establish and support Shantou University, the only privately funded public university in China. Facebook founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg has made education one of his primary causes; his first act of large-scale philanthropy was donating US$100 million worth of his Facebook shares to Newark, New Jersey public school system in 2010.

Retail magnate Charles Francis Feeney, who has donated US$6.3 billion to date, has pledged US$177 million to the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF) and Trinity College Dublin to create the Global Brain Health Institute aimed at battling the quick rise of dementia.

Pierre Omidyar, co-founder and current chairman of eBay, started the Omidyar Foundation with his wife Pamela in 1998; and this couple have reportedly invested US$115 million in Humanity United (under the Omidyar Foundation umbrella), which supports 85 anti-slavery nonprofit and on-the-ground projects in five countries, including Nepal.

Eight of 20 philanthropists on the list included community development among their principal causes, e.g. Bloomberg’s $42 million “What Works Cities” project aims to help 100 mid-sized American cities enhanced their use of data to improve the lives of residents and boost government transparency.

Twenty five percent of those in the “Most Generous” list have supported arts and culture, which is ahead of the environment (four out of 20) and religion (3 out of 20). KB Home co-founder and former SunAmerica CEO Eli Broad has been an active patron of the arts, and recipients of his generosity include the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), Museum of Contemporary Art (MOCA) and The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

It’s easy to give when you have a lot.. a surplus. However, not all those who have surpluses give significantly for the world’s betterment.

“No one is useless in this world who lightens the burdens of another.”
― Charles Dickens

Is computer literacy a life’s necessity?

A few weeks ago, while researching for information on technological jargon for my intermediate class, I fell into a test on computer knowledge. I sometimes get into this spur-of-the-moment kind of thing and forget it in a blink. That test, however, turned out to be more than just an extemporaneous ego exercise. The result indicated that I only have average knowledge of computers (I’m being generous with myself as the average score on that day was 7.3/10 while I got only 7). For someone who has a website and blog regularly, has self-published a book and is active online, I thought I would be above average. I may not be a power user of new and advanced technology, but I’m certainly a computer literate.

Computer literacy (CL) refers to the ability to use computer applications rather than programs. How literate do we need in order to succeed professionally and make the most of life?

Australian public and private schools have computer science as a subject. For instance, the New South Wales public schools’ Year 6 students (their average age is 12 years) are taught and expected to have the following computer skills: Using computer-based technologies to manipulate, create, store and retrieve information to express ideas and communicate with others (Word Processing, Graphics and Multi-media); Using computer-based technologies to locate, access, evaluate, store and retrieve information (Spreadsheets and Databases) and to express ideas and communicate with others (Internet and Email); Downloading copy of document; Identifying hardware components,such as keyboard, mouse and screen (

Not long ago, I read a report saying that in the USA as much as 60% of schools issue laptops or tablets to their students.

There was no computer science or information technology subject in my high school days (and we didn’t have electronic gadgets at home). To date, there are still children in developing and developed countries who don’t have the privilege of being taught this subject at school. Unlike in developing nations (due to lack of or inadequate funding), however, having computer subjects and labs in schools is a choice in developed countries.

In the French public education system, the absence of computer in the majority of classrooms is more cultural than monetary. The pedagogy is still traditionally based on memorisation, writing (with its famous regular dictée and use of handwriting analysis for employment purposes) and centralised curriculum.

According to the Guardian, the London Acorn School bans its pupils from using smartphones and computers and watching TV at all times, including during holidays. Children of this school “are not allowed television at all before the age of 12, after that they are allowed documentaries that have previously vetted by parents. They cannot watch films until they are 14; the internet is banned completely for everyone under 16 at home and at school – and computers are only to be used as part of the school curriculum for over 14s” (

The Guardian quoted the finding of a global study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) that investing heavily in computers and new technology in the classroom did not improve pupils’ performance, and frequent use of computers is associated with lower results. As well, there have been concerns about the disruptive effect of the use of mobile phones and iPads in the classroom and the potential negative impact of social media on young people.
On the other hand, we’ve heard a lot about how technology and the use of computer have broadened minds, have enhanced teachers’ skills, strategies and knowledge, and are more fun and interesting for students.

I believe that, in our current society, we need to be computer literate to be able to accomplish specific tasks; simplify (but not complicate) life; save (but not waste) time; improve communication and interpersonal skills (but not limit or jeopardise these); and encourage creativity (but not illegality).

Accordingly, my mediocrity in computers and information technology is not a handicapped but an opportunity as I don’t fully depend on it for my personal, social and professional satisfaction and happiness.

Nice in France

(This is dedicated to the people of Nice and those who were in this radiant and splendid city on the 14th of July 2016)

We lived in Nice (the capital of the French Riviera with about 344,000 inhabitants) for over one year and have unforgettable moments there, including visits of our Australian nephew and friends who jogged at the Promenade des Anglais (7-kilometre walkway along the sea) in shorts and sleeveless t-shirts in winter. They were amazed by the very narrow streets of Vieux Nice (Old Town of Nice) aligned with colourful (mainly yellow-brown) houses that have laundry hanging from the windows and specialty shops, such as the butcher that sells alive-looking pheasants (with heads and feathers, of course).

According to literature, Nice was founded by the Greeks, and during the 19th-century it was a famous destination for Europe’s elite. Today, it attracts travellers and artists from all over the world due to its sunny weather and liberal atmosphere, splashy markets, alluring restaurants and proximity to other well-known places (such as Cannes, Monaco and Saint Paul de Vence).

Its library, the Bibliothèque Louis Nucéra, was our second home. Almost every day, I found myself relaxing on its colourful small chairs between bookshelves and audio-visual stands. We made the most of the free artistic workshops and film showings on Wednesdays and Saturdays. I often mingled with retirees wanting to learn or improve their computer skills. Once I had to help a well-groomed woman in her mid/late 60s who was struggling to upload information on pages of an introduction website.

My then 5-year-old son and I had fun in the premier voyage of the city’s 8.7-kilometre, single-line tramway on November 24, 2007. Actually, Nice had a tram (but horse-drawn) in 1879 which was electrified in 1910. In the 1920s, the tram network had 11 lines, but was replaced by buses on some lines in 1927; and on 10 January 1953, the last tramway stopped running.

During school holidays and on weekends, after some hours at the library, we went for a stroll at the Promenade des Anglais then relaxed at the nearby beach. Very wealthy Englishmen, who spent winter in Nice, were the origin of this Promenade or La Prom. It was first called by the locals (Niçois) Camin dei Anglès (the English Way). In 1860, when Nice became part of France, it was renamed La Promenade des Anglais. It has since been a remarkably pleasant and friendly place full of walkers, bicyclists, baby strollers, in-line skaters and skateboarders.

Nice is not only beautiful but convenient too. Once before dawn, I had to rush to a chemist at Place Masséna because my son had a stomach ache. Place Masséna is the main city square bordered by red ochre buildings of Italian architecture that reminded me of my trips to provincial Mediterranean places. Though the surrounding shops and boutiques were not opened yet, there were already fascinating sounds and smells due to either the remnant of last night’s party or early creativity and activity.

Next time I’ll visit Nice, I’m certain to find it still a lovely city I’ve always known; but such a trip will likely to trigger a different souvenir.

“Darkness cannot drive out darkness: only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate: only love can do that.” ― Martin Luther King Jr., A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches.

Common sense (or lack of ) on expired medication

(Last June 23, the British people voted to leave the European Union after being a member for more than 40 years, which is historic and has implications in the world politically, economically and socio-culturally. The 2016 Euro Football is on and the excitement will surely go beyond the finals on July 10. Ten percent of Island’s population of about 330,000 are currently in France cheering for their national team. However, neither is the subject of my July article).

There were more rainy than sunny days in my region last month. As in previous spring months, I took the pleasure organising not only my wardrobe but cabinets and cupboards. I was heartbroken putting outdated medicines in a paper bag. I thought of bringing these to the chemist (UK)/pharmacy (US) on my way to work, but the queue was half a kilometre long and my bus was about 5 minutes from departing, so I ended up bringing this with me to a nearby country (where I work) that does not legally obliged chemists to take unwanted or expired medicines.

Arriving in the classroom, the first thing I did was to ask my students if they knew of the nearby chemist that accept expired drugs. Co-incidentally, one of them actually took an expired aspirin that morning and she said that she had done this before and it was effective in getting rid of her headache.
The other two students asked me if we can still consume drugs after their use-by date. The Harvard Medical School has reported Psychopharmacology Today’s advice that a drug is absolutely 100% effective even when the expiration date has passed a few years.

According to Psychopharmacology Today, most of what is known about drug expiration dates comes from a study conducted by the US Food and Drug Administration for the military, and this study found that 90% of more than 100 drugs (both prescription and over-the-counter) were perfectly good to use even after 15 years of its expiration date (except nitro-glycerine, insulin and liquid antibiotics), and placing a medication in a cool place (such as a refrigerator) will help drugs remain potent for many years.

(Do you wonder about the role of manufacturers and those in the market chain regarding the use-by or expiration date?)

Experts maintain that use-by or expiration date is an easiest and most conservative way of ensuring the safest way of selling and consuming medicines and food. Generally, current informed opinion is that most drugs are classified as out-of-dated two years after their manufacture and this expiration date is only valid for unopened product. There are ample write-ups on this topic, such as the one published in that says contrary to common belief, there is little scientific evidence that expired drugs are toxic. “There are virtually no reports of toxicity from degradation products of outdated drugs.”

It’s in developed countries that reimburse medication as part of their social security and health systems where unused and expired medicines are in abundance. In the Third World, where treatment is not subsidised or/and reimbursed by the State and quite expensive, medicines are bought only when in dire need and on limited quantity.

This is what I said to my students: “I’d take expired medication for a minor ill-health, like hay fever (which I’ve at the moment) or headache. However, I’ll definitely not take it for a chronic and potentially life-threatening disease, e.g. seizure or heart problems.”

If expired drugs are safe for human consumption, why not donate these to charities at home and abroad? It’s not that simple. The World Health Organisation (WHO) and some individuals and associations are against the donation of expired medicines because they believe that there shouldn’t be a double standard when it comes to donation, i.e. if the quality of an item is unacceptable in the donour country, it is also unacceptable in the receiving nation as outlined in the Guidelines for Medicine Donations Revised 2010. (

If in doubt, just bring your expired drugs and medicines to your local chemist/pharmacy. If your local chemist doesn’t accept this, ask him/her if s/he knows one that does this (i.e. sorts and stores them in specific boxes to donate to charities and NGOs, and/or deposits unsuitable drugs on sites with approved incinerator where these are burned at 1200°C to avoid the risk of pollution or reuse).

We should never throw expired medicines in a bin at home (as I was about to do due to laziness), sink, toilet or elsewhere because traces of these will likely to end up in our groundwater and agricultural fields endangering our environment and health.

Language, identity and global necessity

Language is a cultural, political and economic tool, and English has shown great success in this domain. The spread of English internationally has been aided and abetted by the advancement in technology, forging of international organisations, and bare economic and political necessities. On the other hand, languages have been (and can be) taken over by one which is spoken by those from an economically, politically and socially dominant nation.

People who speak English as a second language do so because either they want or are obliged to (it is imposed from the outside). These days, they represent more than two-thirds of English speakers in the world, and the distinction between native and non-native speakers is not that significant anymore.

In the Philippines, for example, English is used in government, private and public dealings. Although Tagalog is the official language, English is the medium of instruction in schools and universities and is used lavishly in the mass media. This country was a Spanish colony for more than 300 years; however, it’s the Americans who have had the recent influence on its culture. Its proximity to Australia – another native English speaking country – has been a convenience. In the Asia-Pacific region, the Philippines has the largest population of English-speaking inhabitants (over 102 millions).

The majority of this year’s Eurovision songs were in English. Even the winning title by Jamala of Ukraine has more English than Tatar words. For the first time, Spain’s entry was also in English which aroused criticisms from its Royal Academy of Spanish Language (RAE), the official body that oversees language use. The French entry was also mainly performed in English. (In Eurovision’s earlier days, contests were dominated by francophone nations – e.g. France, Belgium, Switzerland, Luxembourg & Monaco – and by entries in French). These days, contestants believe that English gives them a better chance to win because it is more widely understood than other languages; as well, successful songs have English lyrics.

Language is part of our identity, i.e. we identify and communicate with each other through it. Without language, a society and its culture do not have strong and unifying foundation upon which to exist. It is sad that sometimes this identity is sacrificed in favour of financial gain and/or career ambition.
Bilingualism or multiculturalism is definitely advantageous, particularly to access job and education, improve relationships or open opportunities. What is disconcerting is putting aside our native language (heritage) in favour of another; for example, parents insisting on their children to speak only the language of their new country or place of residence. Without practice, the ability to speak a language (native or acquired) gradually vanishes.

According to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), the most spoken languages in the world are Mandarin Chinese, English, Spanish, Hindi and Arabic. The BBC ( seen 30/05/16) has reported that there are 7,000 different languages in the world; 90% of these are spoken by less than 100,000 individuals; of which 2,200 are in Asia and only 260 in Europe.

Sadly, many of these languages (e.g. Romani in Europe, Austral in French Polynesia and Native American Hupa) are disappearing, which has global consequences. Reports published by UNESCO have expressed concerns that if nothing is done, half of the languages spoken today won’t exist anymore by the end of this century; and with their disappearance, humanity would lose cultural wealth and ancestral knowledge embedded in indigenous languages. This is an absolute worry because local knowledge, which is mainly transmitted orally, is linked to timeless wisdom on health, wellbeing and biodiversity (i.e. their wise understanding of the environment can be lost during the change in language).

Therefore, there is an urgent need for well-planned and implemented policies on maintaining or revitalising mother tongues and pass these on to younger generations. Every small effort in this regard is an extra mile. UNESCO’s “Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger” is a useful guide in monitoring the status of endangered languages and creating awareness on the need to safeguard the world’s linguistic diversity. On individual level, let’s continue teaching and speaking with our children and family our native language as this is a heritage issue and not a hindrance to life’s success.


At 5am on 14 November 2015, I was awaken by a phone call from Australia. My sister was so relieved that none of my family and friends was in Paris. My brother-in-law continued the conversation with information on deaths and damages unfolding on their television screen the whole day.

We were in Luxembourg that Friday evening watching Spectre, and as soon as we got home at 11pm we went to bed oblivious to the terrorist attacks in the city of lights, where my first son was born and I resided for 2 years. Though we don’t live in Paris any more, I’m affected by this insecure state and threats of terrorism, which I had never seen in my life before. Last week, one of my students was at the funeral of his cousin’s son who was one of the Bataclan victims. For 2 weeks now, I’ve been coming home late, missing dinner with my family as it takes 2 hours to get home due to traffic jams and security checks. These days, I spend more time commuting than teaching.

Terrorism threatens our existence and that of the civilised world. This has ramifications on every aspect of our society: psychological (limit our activities & choices/create fear), political (e.g. State resources are redirected from social development to security measures), social (relationships are redefined, suspicions arise, and stereotypes prevails) and economic (increased expenditures on health and security; loss of income – e.g. shops in Brussels were deserted last November 21-22).

As the saying goes “If it doesn’t kill us, if will only make us stronger,” and this is exactly what our democratic world has become. There has been an outpouring of support and solidarity. This write-up is my contribution to ensuring that such support and solidarity continue even after families and friends have buried their loved ones and the injured have left their hospital beds.

Solidarity is best described as a fellowship due to common or shared feelings, interests, purposes and responsibilities. Thinking about solidarity, I was reminded of my undergrad lecture more than 3 decades ago on Emile Durkheim (1858 – 1917), a French-born academic who’s known as the Father of Sociology. He put forward the concept of mechanical and organic solidarities. In the former, people have common values and beliefs (i.e. they have the same jobs and responsibilities) that constitute to a collective conscience leading to cooperation between individual members of the group or community. In the latter, there is specialisation of tasks (division of labour) so the society is more secular and individualistic hence people rely on each other to achieve and maintain unity.

Yes, we depend on each other to keep our world safe and democratic – i.e. solidarity. There is a need to intensify our efforts to stay connected to people in our neighbourhoods, schools and workplaces. We must be proactive in dealing with friendly and hostile encounters, especially within a diverse and multicultural environment. As well, let’s not forget that poverty, ignorance or misinformation, discrimination, absence of communication, lack of political will (or their opposites) contribute to the kind of society we have and leave for future generations.

There are enormous examples of individual and group solidarity. « Je suis Paris » was written on t-shirts, walls and banners in many countries, and some individuals have collected money to help the families of victims.

Likewise, there are commemorations, fund-raising events and social/political gatherings (e.g. last week’s Domestic Violence Day and Climate Talks in Paris) when we can give support beyond monetary terms. We shouldn’t wait for the loss of lives, natural disasters, accidents or gloomy situations to demonstrate solidarity. Every day we are faced with circumstances and people that provide us with the opportunity to show sympathy, cooperation and a sense of humanity.

I would like to take this opportunity to wish you a peaceful and happy festive season. This is my last article in 2015, and I hope that there have been more ups than downs in your life this year.

The words in our language

“How was your staycation?” my student asked her colleague.
“It was relaxing,” he answered.

Another young woman sitting next to him raised her hand. “What did you say? What was it?” “stey-key-shun?”
He replied, “Ah.. you were not with us last year. Staycation means vacation spent at home doing something you enjoy. In the beginning, I also thought it sounded funny.”

Then he added, “holiday in UK and vacation in US English.”

I couldn’t help smiling and was glad that my student remembered something from our previous course. Languages evolve, appear and disappear to adapt and cater to the changing needs and developments (e.g. technology) in our society. Often, new words are created by: 1) putting together letters from 2 different words (e.g. ‘Brexit’ – British/Britain’s exit from the European Union. There’s a referendum on this issue in June 2016); 2) shortening words (e.g. company representative = company rep); 3) borrowing from other languages (e.g. French ‘chef’ – cook); and 4) even from mistakes or words of celebrities (e.g. Gwyneth Paltrow’s conscious uncoupling which describes divorcing or separating couple who find the source of unhappiness in themselves and refrain from blaming each other).

According to Betty Birner, many changes in a language begin with teens and youngsters. As young people interact with each others, their language grows to include words, phrases and constructions that are different from those of the older generation. Some of these new words and phrases have a short life span, but others remain and impact the way we speak and write (

Three of the new words I recently saw in are: farecasting (noun) predicting the optimum date to buy a plane ticket, especially on a website or using an application; unsend (noun) – deleting an email after it has been sent; and digital diet (noun) – deliberate reduction in the amount of time spent on the Internet.

Hangry (a combination of hungry and angry, i.e. feeling irritable due to hunger) has been added to According to this website, if you want to talk about an adequate sauce for a tasty meal, you can use “awesomesauce.” If you had been disappointed standing in a moving passenger bus while someone occupied two spaces, you could have told him to stop manspreading (sitting with his legs wide apart encroaching on an adjacent seat or seats depriving other passenger/s of their seats. (

Sometime last year, I saw an online newspaper article that used Mx. (as a gender-neutral title) in the same way as Mr., Miss, Mrs. and Ms. before a person’s name.

A few weeks ago, I received an email from my Aussie friend with a Youtube link of Mr. George Carlin (1937 -2008), an American comedian who coined “soft language” to describe euphemistic words and phrases that, according to him, are used to conceal reality or truth. Some euphemisms he mentioned have actually become politically-correct words, e.g. physically-challenged instead of crippled, visually-impaired for blind, and individuals with learning disorder for “stupid” (his word) person.

I can’t tell you which of this year’s new words will remain in the English language and how long for. Hence, I suggest you stick to established English words and phrases, either British or American, appropriate to the situation.

Likewise, we should avoid the widespread use of jargon (specialised language often used by experts, business people, company staff and bureaucrats) because we communicate to understand and be understood, and not to impress. I’m an avid fan of Plain English (or any language) – i.e. clear, simple and direct, both in oral and written forms.

Happy Labour (US – labor) Day!

Not always whiter and greener

My friend’s daughter always complains about the heat in Brisbane and has said to me how she would love to live in cold Europe. She doesn’t like her air-conditioned car and looks forward to skiing. My Belgian acquaintances find winter miserable and think it is a paradise to use the outdoor swimming pool and visit the nearby beach any time you feel like it.

A former neighbour recently confided to me about unmet expectations in her new job. She described in detail her uneasiness working with native-English speakers (she’s French) which, ironically, was one of the main reasons why she left the Francophone working environment (i.e. she wanted to improve her English by speaking it every day).

When I visit Singapore or Philippines, I observe smilingly women snuggling under their umbrellas not necessarily to prevent from having skin cancer but to avoid getting browner/darker. In western countries, however, men and women spend a lot of time and money trying to get tanned as it is considered good and healthy looking.

Many parents, particularly women, are caught between staying at home to care for their children and working to augment family income. Stay-at-home parents argue that the relationship between babies/young children and parents is fundamental in personality development. On the other hand, working parents maintain that the child/day care environment has a positive impact on the children’s intellectual and social skills. I have heard stories of women who became depressed after a few years in purely parenting commitment. Likewise, I know of several individuals who are happier and healthier now that they are not in the workforce.

Generally, human beings are never satisfied with what they have thus this saying “It’s greener on the other side.” Often, we feel and think that the quality and quantity of goods, services, needs (essential to maintain life, such as clean water and food) and wants (make our lives enjoyable and interesting but we can do without) can be better.

It’s understandable that individuals wish for improvement. However, extreme change has to be thought of carefully and manage intelligently as we often see what we want to see, which can be limited and biased. Often, what looks like white (a colour which is associated with certainty, safety, happiness and purity) is actually ivory or cream.

When deciding to change because it’s greener on the other side, we should use both our intuition and reason, and get the emotion out of the equation. We can’t react to a situation based on what we feel neglecting facts and figures. Bad decisions have been made due to too much or not enough information and too much or absence of emotional attachment. Decision making is founded on our values. Our values are influenced by our experiences, circumstance, family, friends, teachers, classmates and others we meet along the way. It is a skill that serves us for the rest of our lives, therefore, should be handed down to younger generations; and because in every decision we make (either trivial or important), there are social, economic and psychological implications.

My December 2015 article was “Solidarity Amid Insecurity” in honour of the victims of terrorism in Paris. Brussels experienced a similar carnage ten days ago and Lahore (Pakistan) five days ago. I’ve no word to describe these terrible crimes, but would like to quote Salman Rushdie: “How do you defeat terrorism? Don’t be terrorized” (Step Across This Line: Collected Nonfiction 1992-2002).

Consumption of dietary and vitamin supplements is cultural

Getting into a chemist (Oceania and the UK)/pharmacy (US) in Australia, you notice immediately the wide range of dietary and vitamin supplements occupying almost a third of the store. There are a variety of choices from A to Z of brands locally and internationally. But, in France and Luxembourg this is not the case. Often, you have to ask the staff for common vitamin supplements, such as Omega 3 and grape seed tablets, which are stocked between beauty products and medicines. In developing countries of Asia, Africa and Central & South America, these are highly unaffordable for most people. Surprisingly, however, the Nielsen study showed that Asians (and North Americans) lead the world in the usage of dietary and vitamin supplements with the highest levels found in the Philippines and Thailand (66% compared to 56% in the USA). Europe (30%) and Latin America (28%) had the lowest intake (France and Spain at the bottom: 17% and 13% respectively). The respondents’ main reason for not taking vitamins was that “their diets were already balanced while those in Poland, Russia and the Baltic states felt that “it is too difficult to understand which product to use.” (

It is known that, generally, Europeans have poor vitamin D. A comparative study of eating habits and calcium & vitamin D intakes in Central-Eastern European countries conducted by the Faculty of Health Sciences in Semmelweis University, Hungary headed by Dr. Katalin Tátrai-Nèmeth concluded that the highest calcium intake was in the Hungarian population while the lowest in Slovenia, and vitamin D intake was critically low in both of these countries. (http://www.,a-comparative-study-of-eating-habits-calcium-and-vitamin-d-intakes-in-the-popula.html).

As my biological age increases, I become more interested in multi/vitamin supplements and have actually started taking them to boost my immune system and cope with the passing of time. I have always followed a nutritious diet, have low cholesterol, high energy level and good Mass Body Index, and so probably don’t need vitamin supplements. Therefore, for me, “consumption” is the right word to describe my endeavour to feel better.

Many experts maintain that vitamin supplements can improve many bodily functions and mental health, help decrease stress and improve mood. I, too, believe that these supplements can help solve nutrient deficiency that may cause ill health. However, some of these are simply excreted by our body if we consume more than we need. According to the many articles that I have read, some of them, such as niacin and vitamins A, B-6, C and D, even have negative effects when taken in high amounts (e.g. stomach upset, itching, headache and kidney stone).

Whatever your reason for taking dietary and vitamin supplements, ensure that you have a healthy, balanced diet and stay within the Recommended Daily Amounts (RDAs). As well, read their labels carefully keeping an eye on the dose, ingredients and expiry date. Next time you visit your doctor, ask her/his opinion about your needs and your consumption (and if you have not started yet, seek advice before doing so).

Meanwhile, the following necessary nutrients and vitamins are found in your vegetables and fruits:

Vitamin A (for growth and development of cells, prevention of eye problems and keeping a healthy skin) – e.g. milk, eggs, liver, green vegetables, apricots, mangoes, papayas and peaches.

Vitamin B1 (Thiamin – helps the body convert carbohydrates into energy and is necessary for the heart, muscles and nervous system to function properly) – e.g. pasta and whole grains like wheat germ, lean meats, dried beans, soy foods and peas.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin which is essential for growth, turning carbohydrates into energy and producing red blood cells) – e.g. meat, eggs, broccoli, legumes (like peas and lentils), nuts, dairy products and green leafy vegetables.

Vitamin B3 (Niacin – helps the body turn food into energy and is important for nerve function) – e.g. red meat, poultry, fish, peanuts and fortified cereals.

Vitamin B6 (essential for brain and nerve function and helps the body break down proteins and make red blood cells) – e.g. fortified cereals, potatoes,
bananas, beans, seeds, nuts, red meat, poultry, fish, eggs and spinach.

Vitamin B9 (Folate or folic acid is needed to make DNA and helps the body make red blood cells) – e.g. orange juice, liver, dried beans and other legumes, and green leafy vegetables.

Vitamin B12 (helps to make red blood cells and is important for nerve cell function) – e.g. fish, red meat, poultry, milk, cheese and eggs.

Vitamin C (also called ascorbic acid is essential for healthy bones, teeth, gums, and blood vessels and contributes to healthy brain function) – e.g. citrus fruits, strawberries, kiwi, guava, peppers, broccoli, tomatoes and spinach.

Vitamin D (‘sunlight’ strengthens bones by absorbing bone-building calcium) – e.g. egg yolks, oily fish such as salmon and sardines, and fortified foods like orange juice and milk.

Vitamin E (an antioxidant that protects cells from damage and aids red blood cells) – e.g. vegetable oils, nuts, avocadoes, whole grains and green leafy vegetables.

Without Vitamin K, we could bleed to death from a simple cut. In elderly people, Vitamin K helps maintain bone strength; and this can be found in asparagus, kale, spinach, turnips, Brussels sprouts, parsley and broccoli.

Let’s enjoy our food, look after our body and mind, and be happy without doing something to someone that we don’t want done to us.

Leap year, Valentine’s day and more

I hope that 2016 has started very well for you. Definitely, it has for me: I am spoilt being in Queensland (the third largest state in Australia) with its weather suited to outside entertainment and activities (e.g. only a sliding door and a compulsory gate separate our living area from the inground swimming pool).

I am not into major or radical resolutions because often these are likely to be short-lived, but I have set myself some not-so-small goals (i.e. connecting more to myself and traditions involving those around me, i.e. restore, enhance or even renaissance). Of course, I will continue to exercise at least 150 minutes/day, eat my veges & fruits and take everything in moderation (including uotopiloting). Last year, while waiting in the dentist’s practice in Brisbane (3rd populous city in Australia), I read an article that said it’s essential to have at least three holidays a year (which are not necessarily travels abroad) to de-stress. These holidays (e.g. farm stay, hotel lodging, staycation) should focus on our physical, mental and emotional well-being (obviously).

January 26 was Australia Day and there were fantastic celebrations with fireworks and musical shows all over the country. While working for Multicultural Affairs Queensland (formerly Bureau of Ethnic Affairs), we had fun coming up with definitions of an Australian; and my updated version is something like this: Being Australian is driving a Japanese or European car to an Irish pub to drink a Belgian beer; then on the way home grab an Indian takeaway or have Yum Cha at a Chinese restaurant; at home sits on a Swedish furniture watching an American TV program or film on a German TV while texting or Facebooking in a gadget with components from Malaysia or Philippines.

February (the shortest month of the year) is my fourth favourite month. In 2016, there are 366 days (a common year has 365 days) because February has 29 days, and not 28 (this happens once in every four years) – known as leap year. February is actually a busy month: to name a few – – the 4th is World Cancer Day, 5th is Rio Carnival and 8th is Chinese New Year. The first day of lent and forty-day-season of Christian praying and fasting is also this month; and February 14 is not only Valentine’s Day but National Impotence Day (to create awareness of erectile dysfunction).

The 68th British Film Awards, which is also known as the BAFTAs, will be held on the 14th at the Royal Opera House n London; the 58th Grammy Awards on the 15th at the Staples Centre in Los Angeles; and the 88th Academy Awards, known as the Oscars, on the 28th at the Dolby Theatre in Hollywood, California. Most importantly, let’s not forget that the Random Act of Kindness Day (to instill kindness among people regardless of age, gender, ethnic origin, national belonging and life’s circumstance) is on the 17th.

An 82 year old friend has recently sent me this email:
MY PARENTS & GRANDPARENTS WERE LIVING DURING THIS TIME PERIOD (1915-16) – “One hundred years ago”. What a difference a century makes!
Here are some statistics for the Year 1915:
The average life expectancy for men was 47 years.
 Fuel for cars was sold in chemists only.
 Only 14 percent of the homes had a bath.
 Only 8 percent of the homes had a telephone.
 The maximum speed limit in most cities was 10 mph.
 The tallest structure in the world was the Eiffel Tower.
 The average British wage in 1915 was £15 per year!
 A competent accountant could expect to earn £800 ($1600) per year.
 A dentist £900 ($1800) per year.
 A vet between £600 and £900 ($1200- $1800) per year.
 And, a mechanical engineer about £2000 ($4000) per year.
 More than 95 percent of all births took place at home
 Ninety percent of all Doctors had no university education!
 Instead, they attended so-called medical schools, many of which were condemned in the press AND the government as “substandard.”
 Sugar cost two pence a pound.
 Eggs were 10 pence a dozen.
 Coffee was five pence a pound.
 Most women only washed their hair once a month, and, used Borax or egg yolks for shampoo.
 Canada passed a law that prohibited poor people from entering into their country for any reason.
 – Five leading causes of death were:
1. Pneumonia and influenza
2. Tuberculosis
3. Diarrhoea
4. Heart disease
5. Stroke
 The American flag had 45 stars.
 The population of Las Vegas, Nevada was only 30.
 Crossword puzzles, canned beer, and iced tea hadn’t been invented yet.
 There was neither a Mother’s Day nor a Father’s Day.
 Two out of every 10 adults couldn’t read or write and, only 6 percent of all British pupils went to university.
 Marijuana, heroin, and morphine were all available over the counter at local corner chemists.
Back then chemists said, “Heroin clears the complexion, gives buoyancy to the mind, regulates the stomach, bowels, and is, in fact, a perfect guardian of health!” (Shocking?)
 Eighteen percent of households had at least one full-time servant or domestic help…
 There were about 230 reported murders in the ENTIRE U.S.A.! In 2014 this figure had risen to 14,249.
 In the UK the murder rate in 1915 was 1420. In 2015 it was 537.
 I am now going to forward this to someone else without typing it myself.
 From there, it will be sent to others all over the WORLD all in a matter of seconds!
 Can you imagine what it may be like 100 years from now?